Thursday, April 12, 2012
What is construction and how is it developed? There are so many questions regarding construction, zoning, and building codes. These are the main questions and regulations when one tries to build any type of building in the United States. Construction has different types of construction that depend on what type of occupants it will have after it is completed and what its use will be. That is a major question because depending on the type of use will determine the type of fire rating it will have. Another factor to consider is the number of stories that will determine the type of classifications of the building. The building plans and the building permit are generally the first steps to take for any construction. One major constrain that government has over constructions is the accessibility standards also known as the American with disabilities Act (ADA). Every building has to pass the state and federal regulations.
What are the types of construction and how are these determine? There are five different types of constructions. These are determined based on its hazards towards the occupants. The higher the fire resistivity of the building the smaller the hazards to the occupants. The International Building Code is who classifies the type of the building. In order to classify a building the floors, roofs, columns, beams, exterior walls and the exterior partitions will be checked. These will be checked to determine the degree of fire resistance.
Type І is the most fire resistant construction and type V is the least fire resistant. Type І and type П are composed of noncombustible elements using materials such as steel, concrete and masonry. These elements are used on the structural frame of the building including the exterior walls and the roof.
Type Ш and type ІV constructions are made using noncombustible and combustible materials. The exteriors walls of the building are made out of noncombustible materials and the interior of the building is composed out of combustible materials such as wood or wood based materials. The frame is mostly constructed out of wood.
From type one to type four there is a subdivision that further explain the compositions to the structural framing of the building whether is wood combustible or wood non combustible. The main difference of type V is that the envelope and the structural framing of the building do not need to be fire rated.
Zoning is another major element to consider when seeking constructing a building. Zoning ordinance also known as zoning code is a document required by the planning laws of the city or county. The primary use is to regulate the use of the land according to the laws of the city. Cities have created different district groups that determine the use of the land. The district groups are the Residential groups, Commercial district group, Industrial district group and the Special district group. All of these groups are subdivided in to several other groups that further explain the use of the building. For example the commercial group is divided in to professional, office, retail and business.
Zoning map and Zoning text are two other restrictions that talk about the use of the land for the present and future. Zoning map for example explains how much land can be used for residential use. The city will limit the use of residential housing because later on in the future the expansion of the city might require fire stations, shopping centers, schools and hospitals. Zoning text on the other hand means that city has a limit on the ground coverage and the floor area that can be used. The ground area that can be used depends on where is located. These two areas are powerful restrictions that limit ground coverage and volume of a building.
Building codes are enforceable by using the police powers vested in government as it is mention in the book by Julian Diaz and Andrew Hansz ( Real State Analysis Environments and Activities). The local government enforces a series of inspections during construction and after construction to ensure the building is being built following the local codes. The local codes will inspect the plumbing and the slabs very carefully to insure that the building will pass. After the building passed all inspections the developer will apply for a certificate of occupancy.
This is a brief description of the main components that take place when trying to construct a building. These are the rules and regulations that have to be followed in order to obtain a building permit and use it the building after its completion for its intended purpose. Zoning and building codes are enforced by the city, the county, state and federal laws. These rules and regulations are to ensure the welfare of the citizens and occupants of the building.
Diaz, Julian, and J. Andrew. Hansz. Real Estate Analysis: Environments and Activities. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Pub., 2010. Print.
Mehta Madan,Walter Scarborough, Diane Armpriest. Building Construction: Principals, Materials, and Systems. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2008.
Mulligan E. Donald and Kraig Knutson. Construction and Culture: A built Environment. 2nd Ed. Illinois: Champaign, 1999,2000,2004.